Rosaceae family is in the genus Prunus, as well as peach plum. It is divided into two types: European plum (Prunus domestica L.) and Japanese plum (Prunus domestica L.) : P. salicina) Plums grown in Thailand are plum Japanese It has long been planted, but not widely. Later, the Royal Project Foundation brought Gulf Ruby plum from Florida. United States It was tested at the Angkhang Royal Agricultural Station in 1979 and research and development until successful. The plum is a fruit that encourages farmers to grow a career. The main areas of interest are the Mae Hae Mae Luo, Luang Kee Noi and Angkhang.
Plum is a fruit tree that looks rather small as a peach. Flowers will be released during January to February. After getting enough cold. The flower is on the branch Spur, which is two years old, like plum. But some plums have eyes on the flowers. 1-year-old buds have 2-3 eyes. Flowers are plum. Small and white flowers are perfect. But usually do not mix themselves. It is a mixture of crosses and specific species. The result is Drupe type, so it is classified as Stone fruit. It has the same hard endocarp as Plum and Peach. It is more diverse than the size of the fruit. Color of fruit and color of fruit according to each species Both types of fresh. And processing Plums will bloom in January. To the mother. The flowers are very beautiful white.
Climate and weather conditions
Plums cultivated in Thailand require the cold to break down for a long period of about 100 to 300 hours. The planting area must be at a height of 1,000 meters above sea level, but some species can grow in highland areas. Sea level from 700 meters up, such as Jule varieties to grow fresh plums. Planting area must be able to provide water. The yield is good. For processed species, it can be grown commercially in arid areas. And the area should not have wind problems to reduce the fall.
Plum cultivated in Thailand.
Plums grown in Thailand have many varieties. Each variety is used differently, such as consumption fresh or processed as a hybrid.
1 Gulf Ruby plum is the most widely eaten fresh produce currently. The fruit is larger than other varieties. Weight of about 60-80 grams per fruit, high rounded, pointed, reddish purple. Yellow Flesh Sweet and sour taste can be harvested from April to May. Affected fruit require hybrid varieties.
2Plum the Gulf Gold varieties are eaten fresh. The fruit is large and similar in appearance to Gulf Ruby, but the fruit is yellow. When cooked, it will turn orange. Ripe fruits are harvested slowly at the end of May. The mixture is good.
Yellow Ban Luang varieties with medium size about 40-60 grams per fruit, yellow fruit yellow fruit. Sweet and fragrant Harvested in May. The fruit must be mixed with pollen to be effective. Can be grown in highland areas from 900 meters above sea level.
4 Red Ban Luang Round shape with deep groove. The fruit is dark red when cooked is reddish-black. And the size of the fruit is both large and small fruit weight 40-70 grams per fruit. Can be eaten fresh, especially the large species. And can be processed as well because the meat is quite solid. The harvest is slow. May The mixture is good.
5 varieties of Jule are varieties for the processing of small diameter about 1-2 cm round shape red fruit flesh dark yellow, small seeds can stick on the tree for a long time. Harvest season is April to May. It can grow well in the high sea level from 700 meters up.
6 Plum varieties grown in Thailand. It can not be grown commercially, but other uses, such as the use of hybrid as the Indian yellow varieties. And so on.
Quality Standard: Peach is divided into 4 grades.
Special grades must meet the species without defect-free disease and insects weighing about 84 grams per fruit.
Grade 1 fruit must meet the species without defect-free disease and insect weighing about 56-83 grams per fruit.
Grade 2 fruit must meet the same species without defect-free disease and insect weighing approximately 42-55 grams per fruit.
The fruit factory weighs less than 42 grams or the big one, but it has a blame. The wound should not be 5% of the results.
Each plum has different harvesting times. It will be from April to June.
Marketing and Utilization
Plums can be divided into two groups: fresh plums And plums for processing. Plums for fresh food are Gulf Ruby, Gulf Gold, Yellow Luang and Ban Luang. But these varieties can be processed, such as jam, plum and plum juice. The varieties for processing are: Jule, which is used to make plums. In terms of benefits and nutrition. Plums are one of the healthiest fruits of sucrose, citric, malic and kiccan. It helps slow down aging and strengthen bones and teeth.
Planting and maintenance
Plant spacing: Normally, 4×4 meters, 1 rai will be planted with 100 trees. It may be 3×4 meters or 2×4 meters, but must be trimmed and maintained. Preparation of planting holes, as well as planting plum.
Fertilizer application: At 15-15-15, 16-16-16 or 13-13-21 fertilized at the beginning of the rainy season, the rates were 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 kg per tree. Year 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.Reference: hkm